In today’s technologically advanced world, privacy is becoming more and more crucial. Individuals and groups must take precautions to safeguard themselves from malicious attacks as more and more sensitive data is being stored online. Ethical hacking can help in this situation. Penetration testing, also referred to as ethical hacking, is the process of evaluating computer systems, networks, and applications to find flaws that could be used by malicious attackers. We’ll talk about some of the most popular methods and equipment used in ethical hacking in this article.

1.Counting and Searching Any penetration test’s first move is to scan the target system for open ports, unattended services, and potential vulnerabilities. Programs like Nmap and Nessus are frequently employed for this. The tester can use enumeration tools like Enum4linux or SMBMap to collect more comprehensive information about the target system after the initial scan is finished.

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2.Stealing passwords The most popular method for securing system entry is passwords. The strength of passwords is tested, and those that are weak or readily guessed are identified using password cracking tools like John the Ripper and Hashcat. 


3.Engineering, social The art of social engineering involves tricking people into disclosing private information or taking improper action. For instance, phishing letters are a typical social engineering technique. To evaluate an organization’s vulnerability to social engineering attacks, ethical hackers may use tools like the SET (Social-Engineer Toolkit). 


4. Exploitation Once vulnerabilities have been found, ethical hackers can enter a system without authorization by using a variety of exploitation tools. Metasploit, a framework that offers pre-built exploits and payloads for different flaws, is one of the most frequently used tools for exploitation. 


5. Post-Exploitation Ethical hackers frequently work to keep their access to a system active for as long as they can. In order to build backdoors, increase privileges, and conceal the hacker’s existence on the system, post-exploitation tools like PowerSploit and Empire can be used. 


6. Checking web applications Attackers frequently target web apps. To test the security of web apps, identify vulnerabilities like cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection, and offer advice on how to fix these vulnerabilities, ethical hackers can use tools like Burp Suite and OWASP ZAP. 


7. Testing of WiFi Networks Yet another popular target for intruders are wireless networks. The security of wireless networks can be tested, their flaws found, and their fixes explained using tools like Aircrack-ng and Kismet. 

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In conclusion, ethical hacking is an essential skill for finding and repairing flaws in computer networks, apps, and systems. Ethical hackers can help organisations defend their private data from malicious attackers by utilising a variety of tools and techniques. This collection of tools and methods used in ethical hacking is by no means complete, but it should serve as a good place to start for those curious to learn more about this vital subject.


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